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Different Causes of Diabetes

Diabetes is of many types. The cause of diabetes depends on the type of diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes. It is mostly found in children and young adults. Type 1 Diabetes is a result of an autoimmune disorder. Type 1 diabetes is associated with lack of insulin. Such patients have a specific type of HLA gene on their chromosomes. Infection in genetically inclined individual leads to commencement of immune system which cannot distinguish between self and non-self cells which leading to damage of insulin producing beta cells.

Type 2 Diabetes:
It is caused by interaction of hereditary factors and environmental factors, resulting in decreased efficacy of insulin and after a few years the ability of pancreas to produce insulin is also decreased. There are several factors, such as genetics, obesity, and physical inactivity that can increase a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Type2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the cells of the body become resistant to insulin.

Insulin binds to insulin receptors on body cells and this insulin-receptor binding cause activation of complex metabolic processes e.g. GLUT activation, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism etc. More than 100 genes are involved in this process. One or more defective genes can lead to destruction of insulin action and hence development of diabetes. In diabetes many genes can turn defective and each patient can have a set of different defective genes. Any defects in the genetic makeup leads to irreparable changes that affect the functioning of insulin. Lack of physical activity, stress and obesity further worsens this situation. After some time production of insulin also diminishes. These changes ultimately lead to the development of diabetes in a person. The figure below explains the working of insulin:

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